I) Introduction

II) Origins

III) Traditional Ecological Knowledge (Ethnobotany)

IV) Botany & Ecology

V) Ecological Succession, Eradication and Management

VI) Invasive Species

VII) Native Plants and Kiawe Country

VIII) Entomology

IX) Faunal Associates

X) Mycology

XI) Chemistry and Nutrition

A) Medicinal Potential

B) Soluble Sugars

C) Endosperm Gum

XV) Exudate Gum

XVI) Leaves

XVII) Apiculture

A) Honey Production

B) Yields

C) Intercrop for Additional Bee Forage

D) Pollen, Pollination and Resource Conservation

E) Wax

F) Propolis

G) Kiawe White Honey

H) Medi Honey

I) Prosopis Mead


A) Uses human food, animal food, beer, gum, fiber, protein, raw food

B) Beer

C) Animal Food

D) Aquaculture

E) Nutrition and Medicine nutritional composition, medicinal potential

F) Yield theoretical yields based on literature citations and harvesting methods:

G) Harvesting

H) Drying Methods and Equipment

I) Production Methods Milling and Processing

J) Hammermill Equipment options

K) Low Tech. Flour Processing Notes

L) Factors that enhance pod production

XIX) Wood

A) Artisan

B) Posts

C) Lumber

i) Value

ii) Grading

iii) Milling Equipment

G) Bio-energy

H) Woody Biomass

I) Charcoal

J) Firewood

i) Rocket Stoves

ii) Gasification

XX) Ethyl Alcohol

XXI) Energy Crops

XXII) Marketing

XXIII) Management Options for kiawe Forests

A) Soil Development

B) Animal Control

C) Intercropping with Kiawe

D) Mixed species agroforest

E) Golf Courses

F) Managing Dense Weedy Thickets (Early animal origin infestation = energy production)

G) Pruning

H) Fire

I) Fuelwood

J) Managing Coppice Prosopis

K) Cloning Elite Trees

L) Clonal Propagation

M) Active Cultivation with irrigation

XXIV) Social Forestry

XXV) Education


XXVI) Case Study: Puakō Hawaii

A) History of the Place Coral Reef and Fishing Village to Cane, Cattle, Residences and Resorts

1) Reef, Microclimate, Protective Forest

2) Agriculture

3) Parker Ranch

4) Honey

5) Natural Forces

6) Hydrology

7) Coconut Nursery

8) Land Stewardship

9) Resort and Residential Perspective

B) Puako Productivity forest types vs. yield

C) Harvesting Bioenergy

D) Harvesting Pods

E) Champion Trees

F) Site Analysis

G) Goals

H) Fire Mitigation

I) Hydrology and Irrigation

J) Flood Mitigation

K) Firebreak and Flood Mitigation

1)    C.S.A. and Living Firebreak

2)    Panini Borders and Living Succulent Firebreaks

L) Aquaculture

1) Algae

M) Nursery Establishment

N) Orchard Establishment

O) Integrated Living System Design

P) Product Diversification; Susccession Economics; Increase Biological Diversity

Q) Pilot Study

1) Accounting for pilot study

2) Total Cost Analysis

3) Methods economic comparison of the cost effectiveness of different methods

R) Native and Indigenous / Culturally Appropriate Species

1) Ala he e understory flower essence (essential oils and carving wood)

2) Loulu, Kōu, Milo and Monkey Pod Overstory (lumber and utensils)

3) Intercrop Coconuts, Neem, and Hawaiian Ipu Gourds

4) Kō (Sugar Cane) Intercrop for ethanol production

5) Novel Introduced Species

S) Crops for Bio-energy production

T) Animal graze (cows, goats, sheep, pigs, chickens biological conversion and solution to labor)

U) Fungi Cultivation

V) Economic Assessment

1) Value-Added Products

2) Wood (lumber/biofuel)

3) Community Bio-Energy

4) Gasification

5) Honey Production Analysis

6) Pod Production Analysis

7) Ethyl Alcohol from kiawe pod flour

8) People and Acres

9) Harvesting Labor

10) Equipment Needs - Natural Products Laboratory and Nursery

11) Energy Needs

W) Education

X) Carbon Credits

Y) Recommendations

1) Fire Mitigation

2) Flood Mitigation

3) Forest Upgrade

4) Diverse Pod Products

5) Neem Treatments

6) Honey Production

7) Increase Biodiversity

8) Effluent Recycling

9) Zoning, Labor, Housing and Transport

10) Management

11) Education

12) Frisbee Golf

13) Kiawe Art

14) Further Research

XXVII) Local Implications

XXVIII) Global Implications

XXX) Summary


XXXI) Glossary

XXXII) Appendix

XXXIII) Acknowledgements

XXXIV) Works Cited